After India and Pakistan fought the first war over Kashmir soon after becoming independent and sovereign states in 1947, it led to the intervention from the UN. In October 1947, tribals raided Kashmir forcing Maharaja Hari Singh to flee Kashmir. He sought help from India and signed the instrument of accession following which the Indian army landed in Srinagar on October 27. Pitched battles were fought and tribals chased away. By then, however, the princely state of J&K was sliced into two parts. Indian government sought United Nations (UN) mediation of the conflict on January 1, 1948, and the mediation process brought the war to a close on January 1, 1949, a year later, and it formally stopped at 2359 hours on the night of 1/2 January 1949. Subsequently, the two countries were encouraged by the UN to ink a pact on July 29, 1949, that established the cease-fire line, a divide that later became the LoC. The actual text of the agreement follows:
(S/AC.12/TC.4, 29 July 1949)
AGREEMENT BETWEEN MILITARY REPRESENTATIVES OF INDIA AND PAKISTAN REGARDING THE ESTABLISHMENT OF A CEASEFIRE LINE IN THE STATE OF JAMMU KASHMIR
- The military representatives of India and Pakistan met together in Karachi from 18 July to 27 July 1949 under the auspices of the Truce sub committee of the united nation Commission for India and Pakistan.
members of Indian delegations were:
Lt. Gen. S.M. Shrinagesh
Maj. Gen. K. S. Thiamayya
Brig. S.H.F.J. Manekshaw
Mr. H.M. Patel
Mr. V. Sahay
members of Pakistan Delegations were:
Maj. Gen. W.J. Cawthorn
Maj. Gen. Nazir Ahmed
Brig. M. Sher Khan
Mr. M. Ayub
Mr. A. A. Khan.
- The Members
of the Truce sub committee of the united nations commission for India and
Chairman : Mr. Hernando Samper (Colombia)
Mr. William L.S. Williams United States)
Lt. Gen. Maurice Delvoie (Military Advisor)
Mr. Miguel A. Marin (Legal Adviser)
1- That the United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan in its letter dated 2 July 1949; invited the Governments of India and Pakistan to send fully authorized military representation to meet jointly in Karachi under the auspices of the commission’s Truce Sub-committee to establish a cease fire line in the state of Jammu and Kashmir, mutually agree upon by the government of India and Pakistan.
2- That the United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan in its
letter stated that “The meetings will be for military purposes; political
Issues will not be considered,” and that “They will be conducted,
without prejudice to negotiations concerning the Truce Agreement.”;
3. That in the same letter the United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan further stated that; “The cease-fire line is a complement of the suspension of hostilities, which falls within the provisions of Part I of the Resolution of 13 August 1948, and can be considered separately from, the questions relating to Part II of the same Resolution.”;
4. That the Governments of India arid Pakistan, in their letters dated 7 July 1949 to the Chairman of the Commission’s accepted the Commission’s invitation to the military conference in Karachi;
B – The
Delegations of India and Pakistan, duly authorized, have reached the following
I. Under the provisions of Part I of the Resolution of 13 August 1943, and as a complement of the suspension of hostilities in the State of Jammu and Kashmir on 1 January 1949, a cease-fire line is established.
II. The cease-fire line runs from MANAWAR’ in the south, north to KERAN and from KERAN east to the glacier area, as follows:
(a) The line from MANAWAR to the South bank of the JHELUM River at URUSA (inclusive to India) is the line now defined by the factual positions about which there is an agreement between both parties. Where there has hitherto not been agreement, the line shall be as follows:
(i) In PATRANA area: KOEL (inclusive to Pakistan) north along the KHUWALA KAS Nullah up to Point 2276 (inclusive to India) thence to KIENI (inclusive to India).
(ii) KHAMBHA, PIR SATWAN, Point 3150 and Point 3606 are inclusive to
India, thence the line runs to the factual position at BAGLA GALA, thence to
the factual position at Point 3300.
(iii) In the area south of URI the positions of PIR’ KANTHI and IEDI GALI, are inclusive to Pakistan.
(b) From the north bank of the JHELUM River the line runs from a point opposite the village of URUSA (NL 972109), thence north following the BALLASETH DA NAR Nullah (inclusive to Pakistan), up to NL 973140, thence northeast to CHHOTA KAZINAG (Point 10657, inclusive to India), thence to NM,010180, thence to NM 037210, thence to Point 11825 (NM 025354, inclusive-to Pakistan), thence to TUTMARI GALI (to be shared by both sides, posts to be established 500 yards. on either side of the GALI), thence to the northwest through the first “R” of BURJI NAR to north of GABD0RI, thence straight west to just north of Point 9870, thence along the black line north of BIJILDHAR to north of ‘BATARASI, thence to just south of SUDPURA, thence due north to the KATHA’KAZINAG Nullah, thence ‘ along the Nullah to its junction with the GEANGNAR Nullah, thence along the latter Nullah to KAJNWALA PATHRA (inclusive to India), thence aerosol the DANNA ridge (following the factual positions) to RICHMAR GALI (inclusive to India), thence north to THAN DA KATHA Nullan, thence north to the KISHANGANGA River. The line then follows the KISHANGANGA River up to a point situated between JARGI and TARBAN, thence (all-inclusive to Pakistan) to BANK0RAN, thence northeast to KH0RI, thence to the hill feature 8930 (in Square 9053), thence straight north to Point 10164 (in Square 9057), thence to Point .10323 (in Square 9161), thence northeast straight to GUTHUR, thence to BHUTPATHRA, thence to NL 980707, thence following the BUGINA Nullah to the junction with, the KISHANGANGA River at Point 4739, Thereafter the line follows the KISHANGANGA River to KERAN and onwards to Point 4996 (NL 975818).
(c) From Point 4996 the line -follows (all-inclusive to Pakistan)JAMGAR Nullah eastward to Point-12124, to KATWARE to Point 66783 to the northeast to SARIAN (Point 11279), to Point 11837, to Point 13090, to Point 12641, thence east again to Point 11142, then to DHAKKI, thence to Point 11415, thence to Point 10301, thence to Point 7507, thence to Point 10685, thence to Point 8388, thence Southeast to Point 11812. Thence the line runs (all-inclusive to India) to Point 13220, thence across the River to the east to Point 13449 (DUHMAT) , thence to Point 14536 (ANZBARI), thence to Point 13554, thence to Milestone -45 on the BURZIL Nullah, thence to the east to ZIANKAL (Point 12909), thence to the southeast to Point 1114, thence to Point 12216, thence to Point 12867, thence to the east to Point 11264, thence to KARQ (Point 4985), thence to Point 14014, thence to Point’12089, thence following the track to Point 12879. From there the line runs to Point 13647 (KAROBAL GALI, to be shared by both sides). The-cease-fire line runs thence through RETAGAH CHHISH (Point 15316), thence through Point 15889, thence through Point 17352 thence through Point 16458, thence to MARP0 LA (to be shared by both sides), thence through Point 17561, thence through Point 17352, then through Point 18400, thence through point 16760, thence to (Inclusive to India), DAUNANG.
(d) from DALUNANG eastwards the cease-fire line will follow the general line point 15495, ISHMAN, MANUS, GANGAM, GUNDERMAN, point 13620, JUNKAR (Point 17628), MARMAK, NATSARA, SHANGRUTH (Point 17531). CHORBAT LA (Point 15700), CHALUNKA (on the SHYOK river), Khor, Thence north to the glaciers. This portion of the cease-fire line shall be demarcated in detail on the basis of the factual position as of 27 July 1949 by the local commanders, assisted by United Nationa Military Observers.
C. The Cease Fire Line described above shall be drawn on a one-inch map (where available) and then be verified mutually on the ground by local commanders on each side with the assistance of the United Nation Military Observers, so as to eliminate no-man’s land. If the local commanders are unable to reach an agreement. The matter shall be referred to the Commission’s Military Adviser, whose decision shall be final. After this verification, the military adviser will issue to each high command a map on which will be marked the definitive cease-fire line.
D. No troops shall be stationed or operate in the area of the BURZII, Nullah from south of MINIMARG to the cease fire line. This area is bounded on the west by the ridge leading northeast from DEDGAI KAL to point 13071, to point 9447, to point 19466, to point 19463, and on the east by the Ridge running from point 12470, to point 11608, to point 13004, to point 13976, to point 13450. Pakistan may, however, post troops on the western of the above ridges to cover the approaches to KHAMBRI BAI pass.
E. In any disposition that may be adopted in consequences of the present agreement troops will remain at least 500 yards from the cease fire line except where the KISHANGAGA river constitutes the line. Points which have been shown as inclusive to one party may be occupied by that party, but the troops of the other party shall remain at a distance of 500 yards.
F. Both sides shall be free to adjust their defensive positions behind the cease-fire line as determined in paragraphs A through E, inclusive, subject to no wire or mines being used when new bunkers and defenses are constructed. There shall be no increase of forces or strengthening of defenses in areas where no major adjustments are involved by the determination of the cease-fire line.
G. The action permitted by paragraph F above shall not be accompanied or accomplished by the introduction of additional military potential by either side into the State of Jammu and Kashmir.
H. Except as modified by paragraphs ll A to II G, inclusive, above, the military agreements between the two High Commands relating to the cease-fire’ of 1 January 1949 shall continue to remain operative.
I. The United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan will station. Observers where it deems necessary.
J. The Delegations shall refer this agreement, to their respective Governments for ratification. The documents of ratification shall be deposited with the United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan not later than 31 July 1949.
K. A period of 30 days from the date of ratification shall be allowed to each side to vacate the areas at present occupied by them beyond the cease fire line as now determined. Before the expiration of this 30-days period there shall be no forward movement into area to be taken over by either side pursuant to this agreement, except by mutual agreement between local commanders.
Done in Karachi on 27 July 1949
For the Government of India
s/ S.M. Shrinagesh
For the Government of Pakistan
s/ J. Cawthorn Mai. Gen.
For the United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan
S/ Hernando Samper
Snapt of Cease Fire Line document between India and Pakistan